Die National Hockey League (NHL, im französischsprachigen Teil Kanadas « Ligue nationale Die NHL ist eng mit der American Hockey League und der ECHL verzahnt, so sind die Teams der NHL mit Mannschaften dieser Ligen verbunden. Die NHL-Saison /18 war die Spielzeit der National Hockey League ( NHL). .. September (englisch). Hochspringen April (englisch). Die NHL-Saison /18 war die Spielzeit der National Hockey League ( NHL). .. September (englisch). Hochspringen April (englisch).
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The league was reduced to six teams for the —43 NHL season: These six teams remained constant for 25 years, a period known as the Original Six.
The league reached an agreement with the Stanley Cup trustees in to take full control of the trophy, allowing the NHL to reject challenges from other leagues that wished to play for the Cup.
Maurice "Rocket" Richard became the first player to score 50 goals , doing so in a game season. By the mids, the desire for a network television contract in the U.
In a second vote the plan was approved. There have been four league-wide work stoppages in league history, all happening since The first was a strike by the National Hockey League Players' Association in April which lasted for ten days, but the strike was settled quickly and all affected games were rescheduled.
A lockout at the start of the —95 season forced the league to reduce the schedule from 84 games to just 48, with the teams playing only intra-conference games during the reduced season.
With no new agreement in hand when the contract expired on September 15, , league commissioner Gary Bettman announced a lockout of the players union and closed the league's head office.
The lockout shut down the league for days, the longest in sports history, as the NHL became the first professional sports league to lose an entire season.
The agreement had a term of six years with an option of extending the collective bargaining agreement for an additional year at the end of the term, allowing the league to resume as of the —06 season.
The NHL received record attendance in the —06 season: At midnight September 16, , the labour pact expired, and the league again locked out the players.
Player safety has become a major issue and concussions, which result from a hard hit to the head, have been the biggest cause.
With recent studies showing how concussions can affect retired players and how it has decreased their quality of life after retirement, concussions have become a very important topic of debate when it comes to player safety issues.
This had significant effects on the league as elite players were being taken out of the game, such as Sidney Crosby being sidelined for approximately 10 and a half months, which adversely affected the league's marketability.
Shanahan began to hand out suspensions on high-profile perpetrators responsible for dangerous hits, such as Raffi Torres receiving 25 games for his hit on Marian Hossa.
To aid with removing high speed collisions on icing, which had led to several potential career-ending injuries such as Hurricanes' defenceman Joni Pitkanen , the league mandated hybrid no-touch icing for the —14 NHL season.
In , Manon Rheaume became the first woman to play a game in any of the major professional North American sports leagues, as a goaltender for the Tampa Bay Lightning in an NHL pre-season game against the St.
Louis Blues , stopping seven of nine shots. In this context, each team is a member of the league, and each member appoints a Governor usually the owner of the club , and two alternates to the Board.
The Board of Governors exists to establish the policies of the league, and to uphold its constitution. Some of the responsibilities of the Board of Governors include: The Board of Governors meets twice per year, in the months of June and December, with the exact date and place to be fixed by the Commissioner.
The chief executive of the league is Commissioner Gary Bettman. Some of the principal decision makers who serve under the authority of the commissioner include:.
The NHL divides the 31 teams into two conferences: Each conference is split into two divisions: The current alignment has existed since the —18 season.
The number of NHL teams held constant at 30 teams from the —01 season when the Minnesota Wild and the Columbus Blue Jackets joined the league as expansion teams, until That expansion capped a period in the s of rapid expansion and relocation when the NHL added 9 teams to grow from 21 to 30 teams, and relocated four teams mostly from smaller northern cities e.
The league has not contracted any teams since the Cleveland Barons folded in The league expanded for the first time in 17 years  to 31 teams in with the addition of the Vegas Golden Knights.
According to Forbes , in , all five of the most valuable teams were " Original Six " teams: NHL teams are susceptible to the Canadian—U.
Each National Hockey League regulation game is 60 minutes long. The game is composed of three minute periods with an intermission between periods.
If a game is tied after regulation time, overtime ensues. During the regular season, overtime is a five-minute, three-on-three sudden-death period, in which whoever scores a goal first will win the game.
If the game is still tied at the end of overtime, the game enters a shootout. Three players for each team in turn take a penalty shot. The team with the most goals during the three-round shootout wins the game.
If the game is still tied after the three shootout rounds, the shootout continues but becomes sudden-death. Whichever team ultimately wins the shootout is awarded a goal in the game score and thus awarded two points in the standings.
The losing team in overtime or shootout is awarded only one. There are no shootouts during the playoffs.
Instead, multiple sudden-death, minute five-on-five periods are played until one team scores. Two games have reached six overtime periods, but none have gone beyond six.
National Hockey League games are played on a rectangular hockey rink with rounded corners surrounded by walls and Plexiglas.
It measures feet The centre line divides the ice in half,  and is used to judge icing violations. There are two blue lines that divide the rink roughly into thirds, delineating one neutral and two attacking zones.
A trapezoidal area behind each goal net has been introduced. The National Hockey League's rules are one of the two standard sets of professional ice hockey rules in the world.
The rules themselves have evolved directly from the first organized indoor ice hockey game in Montreal in , updated by subsequent leagues up to , when the NHL adopted the existing NHA set of rules.
The NHL's rules are the basis for rules governing most professional and major junior ice hockey leagues in North America. Infractions of the rules, such as offside and icing , lead to a stoppage of play and subsequent face-offs , while more serious infractions leading to penalties to the offending teams.
The league also determines the specifications for playing equipment used in its games. The league has regularly modified its rules to counter perceived imperfections in the game.
The penalty shot was adopted from the Pacific Coast Hockey Association to ensure players were not being blocked from opportunities to score.
For the —06 season , the league changed some of the rules regarding being offside. First, the league removed the "offside pass" or "two-line pass" rule, which required a stoppage in play if a pass originating from inside a team's defending zone was completed on the offensive side of the centre line , unless the puck crossed the line before the player.
Since , when a team is guilty of icing the puck they are not allowed to make a line change or skater substitution of any sort before the following face-off except to replace an injured player or re-install a pulled goaltender.
This was done to counter a trend of player injury in races to the puck. The league's rules differ from the rules of the International Ice Hockey Federation IIHF , as used in tournaments such as the Olympics , which were themselves derived from the Canadian amateur ice hockey rules of the early 20th century.
Also, unlike minor penalties, major penalties must be served to their full completion, regardless of number of goals scored during the power play.
The league also imposes a conduct policy on its players. Players are banned from gambling and criminal activities have led to the suspension of players.
The league and the Players' Association agreed to a stringent anti-doping policy in the bargaining agreement.
The policy provides for a twenty-game suspension for a first positive test, a sixty-game suspension for a second positive test, and a lifetime suspension for a third positive test.
The National Hockey League season is divided into a regular season from early October through early to mid April and a postseason the Stanley Cup playoffs.
During the regular season, clubs play each other in a predefined schedule. In the regular season, each team plays 82 games: Eastern teams play 28 games in their own geographic division—four against each of their seven other divisional opponents—and 24 games against the eight remaining non-divisional intra-conference opponents—three games against every team in the other division of its conference.
Western teams play 26 or 29 games in their own geographic division—four or five against each of their six or seven other divisional opponents—and 21 or 24 games against the six or seven remaining non-divisional intra-conference opponents—three games against every team in the other division of its conference, with one cross-division intra-conference match-up occurring in four games.
All teams play every team in the other conference twice—home and road. The league's regular season standings are based on a point system. Two points are awarded for a win, one point for losing in overtime or a shootout, and zero points for a loss in regulation.
At the end of the regular season, the team that finishes with the most points in each division is crowned the division champion, and the league's overall leader is awarded the Presidents' Trophy.
The Stanley Cup playoffs, which go from April to the beginning of June, is an elimination tournament where two teams play against each other to win a best-of-seven series in order to advance to the next round.
The final remaining team is crowned the Stanley Cup champion. Eight teams from each conference qualify for the playoffs: In all rounds, the higher-ranked team is awarded home-ice advantage , with four of the seven games played at this team's home venue.
In the Stanley Cup Final, the team with the most points during the regular season has home-ice advantage. Amateur players from junior, collegiate, or European leagues are eligible to enter the Entry Draft.
The selection order is determined by a combination of the standings at the end of the regular season, playoff results, and a draft lottery.
The 15 teams that did not qualify for the playoffs are entered in a weighted lottery to determine the initial draft picks in the first round, with the last place team having the best chance of winning the lottery.
Once the lottery determines the initial draft picks, the order for the remaining non-playoff teams is determined by the standings at the end of the regular season.
For those teams that did qualify for the playoffs, the draft order is then determined by total regular season points for non-division winners that are eliminated in the first two rounds of the playoffs, then any division winners that failed to reach the Conference Finals.
Conference finalists receive the 28th and 29th picks depending on total points, with the Stanley Cup runner-up given the 30th pick and the Stanley Cup champions the 31st pick.
The most prestigious team award is the Stanley Cup , which is awarded to the league champion at the end of the Stanley Cup playoffs.
The team that has the most points in the regular season is awarded the Presidents' Trophy. The Montreal Canadiens are the most successful franchise in the league.
Since the formation of the league in , they have 25 NHL championships three between and when the Stanley Cup was still contested in an interleague competition, twenty-two since after the Stanley Cup became the NHL's championship trophy.
Of the four major professional sports leagues in North America, the Montreal Canadiens are surpassed in the number of championships only by the New York Yankees of Major League Baseball , who have three more.
The longest streak of winning the Stanley Cup in consecutive years is five, held by the Montreal Canadiens from —56 to — The same trophy is reused every year for each of its awards.
Despite only one trophy being used, the names of the teams winning and the players are engraved every year on the Stanley Cup.
The same can also be said for the other trophies reissued every year. There are numerous trophies that are awarded to players based on their statistics during the regular season; they include, among others, the Art Ross Trophy for the league scoring champion goals and assists , the Maurice "Rocket" Richard Trophy for the goal-scoring leader, and the William M.
Jennings Trophy for the goaltender s for the team with the fewest goals against them. The other player trophies are voted on by the Professional Hockey Writers' Association or the team general managers.
The most prestigious individual award is the Hart Memorial Trophy which is awarded annually to the Most Valuable Player ; the voting is conducted by members of the Professional Hockey Writers Association to judge the player who is the most valuable to his team during the regular season.
The Vezina Trophy is awarded annually to the person deemed the best goaltender as voted on by the general managers of the teams in the NHL.
The James Norris Memorial Trophy is awarded annually to the National Hockey League's top defenceman, the Calder Memorial Trophy is awarded annually to the top rookie, and the Lady Byng Memorial Trophy is awarded to the player deemed to combine the highest degree of skill and sportsmanship; all three of these awards are voted on by members of the Professional Hockey Writers Association.
In addition to the regular season awards, the Conn Smythe Trophy is awarded annually to the most valuable player during the NHL's Stanley Cup playoffs.
The National Hockey League publishes the names of the top three vote getters for all awards, and then names the award winner during the NHL Awards Ceremony.
Players, coaches, officials, and team builders who have had notable careers are eligible to be voted into the Hockey Hall of Fame.
Players cannot enter until three years have passed since their last professional game, currently tied with the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame  for the shortest such time period of any major sport.
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